The stunning Bearded Tooth in The New Forest.
The stunning Bearded Tooth in The New Forest is protected under Schedule 8 of the Wildlife and Countryside Act, and picking this critically endangered species is strictly forbidden.

Theft of Protected Fungi / An Overview of Protected Species

It was very saddening to read a recent newspaper report of the deliberate taking of the rare Bearded Tooth (formerly Lion’s Mane) fungus from three locations in The New Forest. This is one of four species of protected fungi listed under the 1981 Wildlife and Countryside Act as they are endangered. Most offences are punishable on summary conviction by six month’s imprisonment and/or a fine.

According to the newspaper article (not available online), they were taken by “unlicensed foragers”. There is only one licensed forager in The New Forest (it’s a long story!). Collecting wild fungi for commercial purposes requires landowners’ consent, without it such collection is theft (1969 Theft Act). The Forestry Commission in The New Forest do not give consent for commercial collection and their fungi picking campaigns of the last few years are aimed at commercial collectors (though this is not at all clear from their signage). Whoever took it you have not done any favours for legitimate people foraging for personal consumption. You are not representative of the rest of us, like football hooligans, a small minority may well tarnish the reputation of the law abiding majority. The Police, Natural England and The Forestry Commission are investigating the thefts. Anyone with information is encouraged to share it with the police via 101 or The Forestry Commission.

I have seen Bearded Tooth only on one occasion knowing immediately what it was and whooped for joy at being so fortunate to see it. It is a stunning species looking like melted wax cascading out of a fallen tree. Only photos and memories were taken.

With a mycologist friend I returned to that spot this year and there was no sign of it. Poor memory was blamed for forgetting the exact location but I now wonder of this was one of the spots where it had been taken.

The name refers to the Lion’s Mane Jellyfish and not the big cat. The species is edible – “a superb seafood-like taste compared to crab or lobster” but clearly should not be eaten from the wild. If you are keen to try it, it can be cultivated so you can buy it in Asian grocery stores, online and occasionally in supermarkets. Alternatively, your can try to grow your own with plug spawn. It is also sold as powders, supplements and extracts from some health food shops being revered by Native Americans and East Asian cultures where it is traditionally known as an immune booster, memory booster and styptic (stems flow of blood).

As a member of The Association of Foragers, I have been active making sure our legal right to pick wild fungi for personal consumption is allowed to continue. As Hedgerow Harvest, I organise educational fungus forays and walks in The New Forest and pay for a permit from The Forestry Commission to run them. The events are undertaken following strict rules as to what and how much we can pick and as well as teaching identification and safety do emphasise sustainable and legal picking. We are privileged, The New Forest is one of the best places for fungi in Western Europe and is home to rare and protected species as well as good numbers of much more common species.

It may be that this illegal picking was ignorance of the law rather than deliberate targeting. Some fungi books list Lion’s Mane as “edible” without mentioning the legal status, however, such “ignorance of law excuses no one”. To try and educate people I have tried to put together a guide to protected fungi species. To read the interesting background to these lists (e.g. the politics), Peter Marren’s excellent book Mushrooms is highly recommended. (According to a review in The independent it is “The greatest book about mushrooms you’ll ever read”).

Legal Protection

Under the Wildlife and Countryside Act of 1981 it is an offence to pick, uproot or destroy any wild plant listed. “Wild plant” means any plant (including fungi) which is or (before it was picked, uprooted or destroyed) was growing wild and is of a kind which ordinarily grows in Great Britain in a wild state. This means that picking these critically endangered species is strictly forbidden. Most offences are punishable on summary conviction by six month’s imprisonment and/or a fine. The four species of protected fungi listed are:

Sandy stilt puffball

Taxon nameBattarrea phalloides
HabitatInland sandy commons / roadsides
DescriptionLink - First Nature
Distribution MapLink - NBN Atlas
Sandy stilt puffball
Sandy stilt puffball is protected under Schedule 8 of the Wildlife and Countryside Act, and picking this critically endangered species is strictly forbidden. Licensed under Creative Commons Wikipedia Compatible v3.0 – Copyright © 2009 Landsnorkler.

Royal bolete

Taxon nameBoletus regius
StatusEndangered.
HabitatParks or woods with veteran trees
Description (source UK Biodiversity Group Tranche 2 Action Plans - Plants and Fungi)Royal bolete is known mainly from grassy areas under broadleaved trees in ancient, deciduous woods, particularly hornbeam or beech woods but also oak, on calcareous or acidic sandy soils. It is an ectomycorrhizal species which depends on old host trees. Many of its known host trees are old oak pollards. It has attractive, edible fruiting bodies which generally appear between May and September, although it is not known how reliable its fruiting is. The fruiting bodies are reddish in colour with a cap 6-15 cm in diameter.
DescriptionLink - First Nature
Distribution (source UK Biodiversity Group Tranche 2 Action Plans - Plants and Fungi)In Britain, this species is only known from southern England. There is very little information on its historic distribution in Britain. It may always have been rare, but some experts suggest that it may have declined over the last 40 years. In recent years, it has only been seen at three sites: the New Forest, Ashgreen (Surrey) and Windsor Forest. Elsewhere, this species has been recorded in scattered locations across central Europe.
Distribution MapLink - NBN Atlas
Royal Bolete
Royal Bolete is protected under Schedule 8 of the Wildlife and Countryside Act, and picking this critically endangered species is strictly forbidden. Licensed under Creative Commons Wikipedia Compatible v3.0 – Copyright © 2008 Ken Stavropoulos (pennybun).

Bearded Tooth (formerly Lion’s Mane)

Taxon nameHericium erinaceus
StatusEndangered
HabitatParks or woods with veteran trees
Description (source UK Biodiversity Group Tranche 2 Action Plans - Plants and Fungi)Hericium erinaceum grows mainly on the wounds of old living trees and on the ends of felled trunks in deciduous woods. It often grows high up on its host trees which are usually beech, but may also be oak. This species has an extremely local distribution in Britain, possibly because it is restricted to areas of woodland where there has been a long continuity of old trees. Fruiting bodies appear in late summer to autumn. Techniques are available for cultivating this edible species, and it is now being sold in supermarkets as a fashionable addition to cuisine.
DescriptionLink - First Nature
Distribution (source UK Biodiversity Group Tranche 2 Action Plans - Plants and Fungi)This species is scattered but locally common in southern England, rare in the Midlands (only one record from Herefordshire) and is absent from other parts of the British Isles. There are 12 records from approximately seven sites since 1960. Recent records include sites in the New Forest, Windsor Great Park and Oxfordshire.
Distribution MapLink - NBN Atlas
The stunning Bearded Tooth in The New Forest.
The stunning Bearded Tooth in The New Forest is protected under Schedule 8 of the Wildlife and Countryside Act, and picking this critically endangered species is strictly forbidden.

Oak polypore

Taxon namePiptoporus quercinus
StatusEndangered.
HabitatParks or woods with veteran trees
Description (source UK Biodiversity Group Tranche 2 Action Plans - Plants and Fungi)This species causes brown rot in mature oaks or on recently dead oaks, but never on any other species. It mainly occurs in wood pasture habitat where there has been a continuity of mature oak trees. The fruiting bodies which are edible, but have a very bitter taste, generally appear between May and December.
DescriptionLink - Arkive
Distribution (source UK Biodiversity Group Tranche 2 Action Plans - Plants and Fungi)In Britain, this species has been recorded at Sherwood Forest and from approximately five other sites in Derbyshire, Norfolk, Suffolk, Oxfordshire and Herefordshire. There is no evidence for a historic decline in this species.
Distribution MapLink - NBN Atlas
Oak Polypore
Oak Polypore is protected under Schedule 8 of the Wildlife and Countryside Act, and picking this critically endangered species is strictly forbidden. Licensed under Creative Commons Wikipedia Compatible v3.0 – Copyright © Vavrin 2011.

 

Other Protection

Biodiversity Action Plans

In response to International moves to help reduce or halt the significant losses in global biodiversity, the UK, like many other countries, has summarised the most threatened or rapidly declining habitats and species and created detailed “Species Action Plans” for their conservation. As well as priority habitats, action plans have been created for birds, plants, fish, fungi and other groups. Following devolution there are now priority lists for England, Scotland Wales and Northern Ireland.

UK BAP priority fungi species

Note that lichens have been omitted. Includes rusts and smuts etc. U = unknown

Scientific nameCommon nameEnglandScotlandWalesNorthern Ireland
Amanita friabilisFragile AmanitaYNYN
Armillaria ectypaMarsh Honey FungusYYYY
Bankera fuligineoalbaDrab ToothYYNN
Battarrea phalloidesSandy Stilt PuffballYNNN
Boletopsis perplexaBlack FalseboleteNYNN
Boletus immutatusConstant BoleteYNNN
Boletus pseudoregiusThe PretenderYNNN
Boletus regiusRoyal BoleteYNNN
Boletus rhodopurpureusOldrose BoleteYNNN
Boletus torosusBrawny BoleteYNNN
Bovista paludosaFen PuffballYNNN
Calocybe onychinaLilac DomecapNYNN
Cantharellus friesiiOrange ChanterelleYYNN
Cantharellus melanoxerosBlackening ChanterelleYYNN
Chlorencoelia versiformisFlea's EarYNNN
Chrysomyxa pirolataWintergreen RustYYYN
Cotylidia pannosaWoolly RosetteYNYN
Entoloma bloxamiiBig Blue PinkgillYYYY
Geastrum berkeleyiBerkeley's EarthstarYNNN
Geastrum corollinumWeathered EarthstarYNNN
Geastrum elegansElegant EarthstarYNYN
Geastrum minimumTiny EarthstarYNNN
Geoglossum atropurpureumDark-purple EarthtongueYYYY
Gomphus clavatusPig's EarNNNN
Hericium coralloidesCoral ToothYNNN
Hericium erinaceusBearded ToothYNYN
Hohenbuehelia culmicolaMarram OysterYYYN
Hydnellum aurantiacumOrange ToothNYNY
Hydnellum caeruleumBlue ToothNYNN
Hydnellum concrescensZoned ToothYYYY
Hydnellum ferrugineumMealy ToothYYNN
Hydnellum peckiiDevil's ToothNYNN
Hydnellum scrobiculatumRidged ToothYYYN
Hydnellum spongiosipesVelvet ToothYYYY
Hygrocybe spadiceaDate-coloured WaxcapYYYN
Hygrophorus pudorinusRosy WoodwaxYNNN
Hypocreopsis lichenoidesWillow GlovesYNYN
Hypocreopsis rhododendriHazel GlovesYYNN
Lyophyllum favreiGilded DomecapYNNN
Microglossum olivaceumEarth-tongueYYYY
Mycena renatiBeautiful BonnetYNNN
Myriostoma coliformePepper PotNNNN
Nyssopsora echinataSpignel RustNYNN
Phellodon confluensFused ToothYYYN
Phellodon melaleucusGrey ToothYYYN
Phellodon nigerBlack ToothYYNN
Phellodon tomentosusWoolly ToothYYYN
Pholiota astragalinaConifer ScalycapYUNN
Phylloporus pelletieriGolden Gilled BoleteYYYY
Piptoporus quercinusOak PolyporeYYYN
Podoscypha multizonataZoned RosetteYNNN
Poronia punctataNail FungusYNYN
Psathyrella caput-medusaeMedusa BrittlestemUYUN
Puccinia clintoniiLousewort RustNYNY
Puccinia physospermiBladder-seed RustYNNN
Puccinia scorzoneraeScorzonera RustYNYN
Puccinia septentrionalisAlpine RustNYNN
Puccinia thesiiBastard-toadflax RustYNNN
Sarcodon glaucopusGreenfoot ToothNYNN
Sarcodon scabrosusBitter ToothYYNN
Sarcodon squamosusScaly ToothYYNN
Sarcodontia croceaOrchard ToothYNNN
Sarcosphaera coronariaViolet CrowncupYNNN
Stephanospora caroticolaCarroty False TruffleYNNN
Stropharia hornemanniiConifer RoundheadNYNN
Tephrocybe osmophoraSweet GreylingYNNN
Tracya hydrocharidisFrogbit SmutUNUU
Tremella moriformisMulberry BrainYNNN
Tremellodendropsis tuberosaAshen CoralYNYN
Tricholoma colossusGiant KnightNYNN
Tricholoma robustumRobust KnightNYNN
Tulostoma melanocyclumScaly StalkballYNYN
Tulostoma niveumStalked PuffballNYNN
Urocystis colchiciColchicum SmutYNYN
Urocystis primulicolaBird's-eye Primrose SmutYUNN
Uromyces gentianaeFelwort RustYNNN

Source – Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC)

Red Data Lists

The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List or Red Data List), founded in 1965, has evolved to become the world’s most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of biological species. It uses a set of criteria to evaluate the extinction risk of thousands of species and subspecies. These criteria are relevant to all species and all regions of the world. With its strong scientific base, the IUCN Red List is recognized as the most authoritative guide to the status of biological diversity. A series of Regional Red Lists are produced by countries or organizations, which assess the risk of extinction to species within a political management unit.

A Red Data List of Threatened British Fungi was produced in 1992 and 2006 by the British Mycological Society (BMS). However, neither of these achieved official approval by the Joint Nature Conservation Committee, thereby diminishing their effectiveness in conservation decision-making.

Preliminary Assessment: The Red Data List of Threatened British Fungi – 2006

Introduction / methodology

Species list

To remedy this, the family Boletaceae (Boletes) was chosen in 2012 to establish a template for fungal conservation status assessments. The aim was to facilitate production of British Red Data Lists conforming to international standards set by the IUCN and published by JNCC.

Working with Natural England, the Association of British Fungus Groups and the British Mycological Society and a team at Cardiff University, Kew mycologists produced this first official (pilot) fungal Red Data List for Great Britain, which was duly published by JNCC in 2013. Of the 68 Boletes studied, 13 were assessed as threatened and 37 are now ‘red-listed’. Even now, in late 2018, no further families have been added.

Red List of Fungi for Great Britain: Boletaceae. A pilot conservation assessment based on national database records, fruit body morphology and DNA barcoding - 2013.

Report / list

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